Category Archives for "Accounting and Auditing"

peer reviewers focus on independence
Aug 05

Peer Reviewers Focus on Independence Documentation

By Charles Hall | Auditing , Preparation, Compilation & Review

Peer reviewers focus on independence documentation. Today I’ll provide you with examples of what peer reviewers are looking for and guidance to keep you out of hot water.

peer reviewers focus on independence

Documentation of Nonattest Services

Peer reviews focus upon nonattest services provided to attest clients. How do we know? Well, see the peer review checklist question below (for an attest engagement).

nonattest services

The big “no-no” is to assume management responsibilities and then perform an attest service. Why? Performing management responsibilities impairs your independence. 

Preparing Financial Statements

Below is another question from the peer review checklists. Notice the first item below: Accepting responsibility for the preparation and fair presentation of the client’s financial statements. The client (not the auditor) must assume responsibility for the financial statements

nonattest1

If the client can’t–or is unwilling to–assume responsibility for the financial statements, then we are not independent, and we cannot perform an audit or a review. This assumption of responsibility does not mean the client has the ability to create financial statements, but it does mean that:

  • that the client will oversee the nonattest service,
  • the client will evaluate the adequacy and results of the nonattest service, and
  • the client will accept responsibility for the nonattest service

If we prepare financial statements and perform an audit, review, or compilation, we have performed a nonattest service and an attest service. Why is this important? Because if we perform a nonattest service and an attest service for the same client, we must assess our independence. And if we are not independent, then we can’t perform an audit or review engagement. (It is permissible to perform the compilation engagement when independence is impaired, but the accountant must say–in the compilation report–that he is not independent.)

Other Peer Review Questions

The peer review checklists also ask for:

  • The name and title of the client personnel overseeing the nonattest service and
  • A description of the accountant’s “assessment and factors leading to your satisfaction that the client personnel overseeing the service had sufficient skills, knowledge and experience.”

Separate Form to Document Independence

So do we need a separate form in our file to document independence?

It certainly would not hurt, and I suggest that you do. PPC and CCH offer such forms (and I am sure other work paper providers do the same). These forms provide a place to document all nonattest services and to assess and document our client’s ability to assume responsibility for the nonattest services.

The PPC and CCH forms also address the cumulative effect of performing multiple nonattest services. The AICPA has stated that the performance of multiple nonattest services can impair independence. So you should document your consideration of whether the cumulative nonattest services create a problem. Peer review checklists ask if we documented this consideration.

Additionally, if significant threats are present, the accountant should document the safeguard(s) used to mitigate the risk. This documentation is particularly crucial in Yellow Book engagements. The PPC and CCH independence forms will assist you with this documentation. Below are peer review checklist questions:

Alignment in Independence Documentation

We should–in the engagement letter–specify the nonattest services and the responsibilities of management. If you are performing an audit or a review engagement, add additional language to the representation letter regarding the nonattest services performed and the client’s responsibility for those services.

So I am suggesting you document the nonattest services in three places:

  • Engagement letter,
  • Independence form, and
  • Representation letter (when relevant)

And when you do, please make sure the nonattest services listed in each document are the same. 

ASU 2018-08
Jul 31

ASU 2018-08: Nonprofit Revenue Recognition

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing

In June of 2018, FASB issued ASU 2018-08: Clarifying the Scope and the Accounting Guidance for Contributions Received and Contributions Made.

Today I provide an overview of how this standard affects nonprofit revenue recognition. 

ASU 2018-08

ASU 2018-08: Nonprofit Revenue Recognition

The purpose of the standard is to provide guidance in regard to recognizing revenues in nonprofit organizations. This standard is conceptually consistent with Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires revenue to be recognized when performance obligations are satisfied. ASU 2018-08 requires contribution revenue recognition when conditions are met (see below).

Once ASU 2018-08 becomes effective (years ending December 31, 2019 for many nonprofits), nonprofits will recognize revenues in one of three ways:

  1. Exchange transaction
  2. Conditional Contribution
  3. Unconditional Contribution 

1. Exchange transaction

If a nonprofit is paid based on commensurate value, then there is an exchange transaction. The nonprofit recognizes revenue as it provides the service or goods. Apply Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts With Customers, for these transactions. An example of an exchange transaction is a nonprofit is paid market rate for painting a local store.

ASU 2018-08 makes it plain that benefits received by the public as a result of the assets transferred is not equivalent to commensurate value received by the resource provider.

2. Conditional Contribution

A conditional contribution is one where:

  • a barrier is present and
  • a right of return or right of release for the contributor exists

The following ​are indicators of a barrier:

  • Recipient must achieve a measurable, performance-related outcome (e.g., providing a specific level of service, creating an identified number of units of output, holding a specific event)
  • A stipulation limits the recipient’s discretion on the conduct of the activity (e.g., specific guidelines about incurring qualifying expenses)
  • A stipulation is related to the primary purpose of the agreement (e.g., must report on funded research)

Recognize revenue when the barrier is overcome.

ASU 2018-08

An example of meeting a measurable outcome would be if the donor requires the serving of meals to 1,000 homeless persons. Another example of the first indicator above is a matching requirement.

An example of limited discretion would be a requirement to hire specific individuals to conduct an activity.

Are budgets an indicator of limited discretion? A line-item budget for a grant is often seen as a guardrail rather than a barrier. A June 2019 FASB Q&A states “Thus, stipulations other than adherence to a budget (for example, the need to incur qualifying expenses) would normally need to be present for a barrier to entitlement to exist.” The Q&A goes on to say, “The unique facts and circumstances of each grant agreement must be analyzed within the context of the indicators to conclude whether a barrier to entitlement exists.”

An example of a stipulation related to the primary purpose of the agreement is a grant that requires the filing of an annual report of funded research. If the grantor requires repayment of the amount received should the report not be filed, then the requirement is a barrier. Judgment is necessary to determine whether a requirement is a barrier. For example, filing routine reports to a resource provider showing progress on a funded activity may be seen as routine and not a barrier. Goals or budgets where no penalty is assessed if the organization fails to achieve them are not considered barriers.

Per ASU 2018-08 “Conditional contributions received are accounted for as a liability or are unrecognized initially, that is, until the barriers to entitlement are overcome, at which point the transaction is recognized as unconditional and classified as either net assets with restrictions or net assets without restrictions.”

3. Unconditional Contribution

If there are no barriers or if barriers have been overcome, the receipt is unconditional. There might still be a purpose or time restriction, resulting in the funds being classified as “With Donor Restrictions” until the restriction is satisfied. Recognize the revenue either as:

  • Net Assets with Donor Restriction
  • Net Assets without Donor Restriction

Effective Date 

A public company or a not-for-profit organization that has issued, or is a conduit bond obligor for, securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an over-the-counter market would apply the new standard for transactions in which the entity serves as a resource recipient to annual reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2018, including interim periods within that annual period. Other organizations would apply the standard to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019.

A public company or a not-for-profit organization that has issued, or is a conduit bond obligor for, securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an over-the counter market would apply the new standard for transactions in which the entity serves as a resource provider to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that annual period. Other organizations would apply the standard to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020.

Early adoption of the amendments in this ASU is permitted.

Transition Guidance

ASU 2018-08 should be applied on a modified prospective basis. Retrospective application is permitted. Under a modified prospective basis, the amendments should be applied to agreements that are either:

  • Not completed as of the effective date
  • Entered into after the effective date

A completed agreement is an agreement for which all the revenue of a recipient or expenses of a resource provider have been recognized before the effective date of ASU 2018-08.

No prior-period results should be restated. There is no cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of net assets at the beginning of the year of adoption.

Disclosures

In the year of adoption, the entity is required to disclose:

  • The nature of and reason for the accounting change
  • An explanation of the reasons for significant changes in each financial statement line item in the current  annual or interim period resulting from applying the amendments instead of the previous guidance

Applicability

Per ASU 2018-08,Accounting for contributions is an issue primarily for not-for-profit (NFP) entities because contributions are a significant source of revenue for many of those entities. However, the amendments in this Update apply to all entities, including business entities, that receive or make contributions of cash and other assets, including promises to give within the scope of Subtopic 958-605 and contributions made within the scope of Subtopic 720-25, Other Expenses—Contributions Made.”

All the Queens Horses
Jul 19

All The Queens Horses: A Review

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing

Have you seen the movie All the Queens Horses? If not, you should. Today I review the movie created by Kelly Richmond Pope. 

All the Queens Horses

It is rare that you see a movie about accounting and auditing. Rarer still, one that is engaging. And why is this documentary captivating? Well, the story for sure, but Kelly did a fine job of putting the pieces together and explaining what was done and how. She includes the key players: the Mayor, the assistant finance director, FBI agents, local citizens, and, of course, Rita Crundwell. (You'll recall from my earlier post that Rita stole $53 million to fund her horsing operations.)

At the time of Rita's arrest, she had four hundred quarter horses, a $2.1 million dollar motor coach, and $300,000 of jewelry. She had ranches and a nice home. So the movie shines the light on Rita's motive: her possessions, specifically, her horses

Kelly Richmond Pope highlights the key element in the twenty-year fraud: trust. Everyone believed in Rita: the mayor, the council members, department heads, and community leaders. Kelly's interviews with these people provide a nice overview of the trust element and brings to life the individuals that believed in Rita--and the subsequent pain that they suffered. 

Interspersed throughout the movie are explanations of what happened. These segments provide easy-to-understand graphics making a complex topic understandable, even to those who have no prior fraud knowledge. The movie gives insight into the opportunity element of fraud, showing that the City of Dixon did not have sufficient segregation of duties

Additionally, the movie provides interviews with the attorney that sued the city's auditors and bank, resulting in a recovery of $40 million. (I do not agree with the attorney's assertion that the City of Dixon had no responsibility for the detection of the fraud.. Governments are responsible for their internal controls. Those controls should be preventive and detective. Even so, the auditors should design their audits to detect material fraud.)

All the Queens Horses: A Training Tool

If you want your audit staff or your clients to understand the gravity of fraud, buy this movie and show it to them. 

This movie does a better job of explaining the psychological and financial damage of fraud than any textbook. Showing this movie in college classes would also be a great way to educate young students about this topic. 

And the beauty of this movie: it's a story. Human beings are hardwired to learn from stories.

My hat is off to Kelly. She did a fine job of bringing this important story to life for thousands of people.  Does the show educate? Yes, but it entertains as well. Well done.

Kelly Richmond Pope

Kelly is an Associate Professor in the School of Accountancy and MIS at DePaul University in Chicago where she teaches forensic accounting, managerial accounting, financial accounting and ethical leadership. For more information about Kelly, click here.


 

Jul 06

The Why and How of Auditing: My New Book on Amazon

By Charles Hall | Auditing

The Why and How of Auditing

Do you ever feel trapped by an audit? Like you can’t finish. It started so well, but somewhere along the way, something went wrong. The wheels came off.

Maybe it started with your acceptance of a new client that you didn’t feel good about from the beginning.

Or possibly your new staff members don’t understand risk assessment. So they blindly followed last year’s work papers. However, the auditee has new risks, and the audit team failed to address them.

Wow, the audit budget is busted. But you still need to finish the substantive and wrap-up work. Just creating financial statements will take a week.

Additionally, you’re in a peer review year.

The clock is ticking. And how do you feel? Trapped!

Want less stress? Then check out The Why and How of Auditing.

My new book explains the full audit process, from beginning to end, from client acceptance to audit opinion issuance. Also, you’ll find helpful guidance for the audit of transaction cycles such as receivables and revenue, payables and expenses, debt, payroll, and more—all in one easy-to-understand book.

Discover helpful ways to plan, execute, and complete your audit engagements.

Imagine: quality audits finished on time.

Praise for The Why and How of Auditing

Need a quick-reference audit guide? This is it. Charles walks you from the beginning of the audit process all the way to the end, an excellent plain-english guide.

Mark Wiseman, CPA, CMA, Partner
Brown, Edwards & Company, L.L.P. Roanoke, Virginia

This is a great how-to, hands-on guide that will help you conduct a quality audit and provide value to your clients. Go over a chapter a week with your audit team. The book provides the why and how behind your audit programs and workpapers.

James H. Bennett, CPA, Managing Member
Bennett & Associates, CPAs PLLC Ann Arbor, Michigan

Thanks Charles for clarifying what’s important in an audit. Recommended reading for any auditor level.

Jay Miyaki, CPA, Partner
Jay Miyaki, LLC Honolulu, Hawaii

The author steps through each audit area in a simple manner and clearly explains topics that are often complex by providing numerous examples and personal anecdotes. I highly recommended this text to anyone in the financial statement audit profession.

Jacob Gatlin, CPA, PhD
CDPA, PC Athens, Alabama

Charles Hall’s “The Why and How of Auditing” is comprehensive, yet easy to implement. This guide will enhance the effectiveness of your audit engagements.

Armando Balbin, CPA, Partner
Downey, California

I highly recommended Charles Hall’s latest book, “The Why and How of Auditing.” Charles takes a complicated subject and makes it simple. Our team found it particularly useful in the areas of questions to ask, procedures to follow, and work paper examples.

Bill Burke, CPA, Partner
Burke, Worsham and Harrell, LLC Bainbridge, Georgia

A must-read for auditors! The Why and How of Auditing is insightful, practical, and rich with ideas. Charles takes a complex topic and breaks it down into an easy to read, well-defined road map.

Kathryn Fletcher, CPA, MBA, Partner
Draffin Tucker Atlanta, Georgia

Get Your Copy Now!

Click here to see the book on Amazon.

make your CPE incredibly useful
May 26

Make Your CPE Useful: Seven Suggestions to Improve Learning

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing

In a thirty-five year career as a CPA, you will spend well over 1,400 hours taking CPE classes. Are you using this time wisely? Today I share how you can make your CPE useful.

It’s 3:32 p.m. on a Friday and you are thinking, “When will this CPE class ever end?” Your golf swing, a late tax return, your daughter’s college tuition cost–each float through your mind. Your thoughts continue, “So much to do, and I sit here wasting another day. Why can’t this be more interesting?” Tired. Bored. Numb. You want to be anywhere but where you are. You feel trapped. 

make your CPE useful

Why does this happen? Many CPAs mistakenly believe this pain is a requirement of the profession. They seem resigned to death-by-CPE, as though there is no other choice.

But then you’ve been in classes where you’re laughing, learning, and even wanting more. The day ends quickly, and you walk away satisfied.

Wouldn’t you love to increase the quality of your training and your engagement with what you are learning? Here are seven suggestions to make your CPE useful.

1. Create Three-Year CPE Learning Goals: Tie Training to Vision

Create a three-year rolling CPE plan. While you may not be able to plan each individual class, you can still sketch out your desired objectives and learning path.

Fifteen years ago, I decided to become a Certified Fraud Examiner. I thought, “Why not use my CPE hours to move me in that direction?” Over the next year, I purchased the training material from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners and trained. In September 2004, I reached that goal. Without the goal, the idea would still be just that–an idea. 

What training goal can you set that will make your dream a reality? What vision do you have for your future?

In your career, you will spend hundreds of hours in training. Why not use those precious hours to get you to your desired destination? Continuous learning about new things is no longer an option. There are exciting (and scary) future changes in accounting.

2. Plan Your CPE Classes Annually: Avoid Cramming in December

Planning your CPE calendar will allow you to spread out the learning load (I do not recommend taking 40 hours of CPE the last week of December). The human mind is not designed to absorb large quantities of complex information in a short period. Space out your classes. The separation will allow your mind to digest and retain what you learn. 

3. Seek Out the Best CPE Trainers: They Will Elevate Your Game

Will excellent trainers cost more money? Sometimes yes, but what’s the alternative? Cheap teachers that bore you to death. Signing up for any old class for convenience’s sake or because it’s cheap is a terrible idea.

Great trainers make for excellent learning experiences. Seek them out. Pay the extra money, if need be. This will make your CPE more useful.

4. Revisit CPE Information: Move Learning to Long-Term Memory

For each one-day class, write a one-page summary. Do this the day after you attend the course. (Once you create the one-page outline, archive it in Evernote for future reference.) Merely writing the summary will drive the learning deeper into your mind. 

make your CPE useful

Then revisit the summary using the following intervals:

  • One week later – review for 20 minutes
  • Two weeks later – review for 10 minutes
  • Three weeks later – review for 5 minutes

There’s nothing sacred about the intervals. The method is what is essential.

Additionally, try to recall the information before reviewing the notes. Doing so facilitates retention according to the book Make It Stick. Revisiting the information and trying to recall it will move your knowledge from short-term to long-term memory–where you need it!

Another suggestion to help you remember the information is that you teach it to your firm members. You can’t explain something you don’t understand. Teaching forces you to learn.

5. Use Livescribe Pen to Take Notes: Record the Audio 

For about $180, you can own the Livescribe pen. No, it will not allow you to remember everything you hear. However, it will record the full audio as you write. Then, later, you can touch a particular word in your notes with the tip of the pen and “voilà,” you hear–from the pen–what was said at that moment. You can upload the written notes and audio to your computer. Don’t ask me how it does this, but it works. Amazing! Now you can have a full recording of your training with shortcuts (notes) to find the audio you want to hear. The pen holds up to 200 hours of audio. 

In terms of learning, writing your notes is more effective than typing (and I might add, less distracting to those around you). Science has proven that writing has a more significant effect on learning and retention than typing.

Another learning tip to make your CPE useful: Read the table of contents before the class starts.

6. Read the Table of Contents: Prepare Your Mind 

The human mind likes to anticipate, to know what’s coming. If you can access your CPE material before the class, I encourage you to scan the table of contents and highlight the areas you are most interested in. Highlighting the table of contents will prepare you for what’s coming.

7. Sit Up Front: You’ll Learn More

Finally, sit up front. The farther back you sit, the more distractions you will see (like the guy reading the latest ESPN headlines or the couple talking all day).

Take Action Now: Plan Time to Consider Your Goals

I challenge you to take action now! Go ahead. Specify a time on your calendar to think about your goals and the CPE classes that will get you there. Become an expert in cybersecurity, fraud prevention, litigation support, data mining, artificial intelligence. Pick an area and move toward your goal. 

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