Tag Archives for " Review Engagements "

Audit workpapers
Jan 21

10 Steps to Better Audit Workpapers

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing , Preparation, Compilation & Review

In this post, I provide ten steps to better audit workpapers. 

Have you ever been insulted by a work paper review note?

Your tickmarks look like something my six-year old created. 

Rather than providing guidance, the comment feels like an assault.

Or maybe as a reviewer you stare at a workpaper and you’re thinking, “what the heck is this?” Your stomach tightens and you say out loud, “I can’t understand this.”

There are ways to create greater audit workpaper clarity.

Audit workpapers

10 Steps to Better Audit Workpapers

Here are ten steps to make your workpapers sparkle.

  1. Timely review. The longer the in-charge waits to review work papers, the harder it is for the staff person to remember what they did and, if needed, to make corrections. Also, consider that the staff person may be reassigned to another job. Therefore, he may not be available to clear the review notes.
  2. Communicate the purpose.

a.  An unclear work paper is like a stone wall. It blocks communication.

b.  State the purpose; for example:

Purpose of Work Paper – To search for unrecorded liabilities as of December 31, 2018. Payments greater than $30,000 made from January 1, 2019, through March 5, 2019, were examined for potential inclusion in accounts payable.

Or:

Purpose of Work Paper – To provide a detail of accounts receivable that agrees with the trial balance; all amounts greater than $20,000 agreed to subsequent receipt.

If the person creating the work paper can’t state the purpose, then maybe there is none. It’s possible that the staff person is trying to copy prior year work that (also) had no purpose.

c.  All work papers should satisfy a part of the audit program (plan). No corresponding audit program step? Then the audit program should be updated to include the step—or maybe the work paper isn’t needed at all.

3.  The preparer should sign off on each workpaper  (so it’s clear who created it).

4. Audit program steps should be signed off as the work is performed (not at the end of the audit–just before review). The audit program should drive the audit process—not the prior year workpapers.

5.  Define tickmarks.

6.  Reference work papers. (If you are paperless, use electronic links.)

7.  Communicate the reason for each journal entry.

The following explanation would not be appropriate:

To adjust to actual.

A better explanation:

To reverse client-prepared journal entry 63 that was made to accrue the September 10, 2018, Carter Hardware invoice for $10,233.

8.   When in doubt, leave it out.

Far too many documents are placed in the audit file simply because the client provided them. Moreover, once the work paper makes its way into the file, auditors get “remove-a-phobia“–that dreaded sense that if the auditor removes the work paper, he may need it later.

If you place those unneeded documents in your audit file and do nothing with them, they may create potential legal issues. I can hear the attorney saying, “Mr. Hall, here is an invoice from your audit file that reflects fraud.”

Again, does the work paper have a purpose?

My suggestion for those in limbo: Place them in a “file 13” stack until you are completely done. Then–once done–destroy them. I place these documents in a recycle bin at the bottom of my file.

9.  Complete forms. Blanks should not appear in completed forms (use N/A where necessary).

10. Always be respectful in providing feedback to staff. It’s too easy to get frustrated and say or write things we shouldn’t. For instance, your audit team is more receptive to:

Consider providing additional detail for your tickmark: For instance–Agreed invoice to cleared check payee and dollar amount.

This goes over better than:

You failed to define your tickmark–again?

Last Remarks

What other ways do you make your audit workpapers sparkle? Comment below.

The AICPA provides a sample workpaper template that you may find helpful. 

You may also be interested in a related post: How to Review Financial Statements.

Also, see Audit Documentation: Peer Review Finding

SSARS 25
Jan 21

SSARS 25: Materiality and Adverse Conclusions

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing , Preparation, Compilation & Review

The AICPA has issued SSARS 25. It is titled Materiality in a Review of Financial Statements and Adverse Conclusions. Below I tell you how this standard affects your future review engagements.

Materiality in Review Engagements

Until SSARS 25, there was no requirement for you to document materiality in review engagements. Some firms, like my own, decided to do so any way. Others have not. Now, there's no choice. SSARS 25 explicitly requires that we determine and use materiality.

Makes sense. The accountant's conclusion says we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made. The conclusion paragraph follows:

Accountant's Conclusion
Based on our review, we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the accompanying financial statements in order for them to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. 

It would be difficult to plan or conclude a review engagement without knowing what materiality is. SSARS 25 requires that we design and perform analytical procedures and inquiries to address all material items in the financial statements. This includes disclosures.

New Inquiry Requirements

SSARS 25 adds new inquiries of management including:

  • Material commitments, contractual obligations, or contingencies
  • Material nonmonetary transactions
  • Significant changes in the business activities or operations
  • Significant changes to the terms of contracts that materially affect the financial statements
  • Significant journal entries
  • Status of any uncorrected misstatements from the previous review engagement
  • How management determined that significant estimates are reasonable
  • Management's assessment of the entity's ability to continue as a going concern, and whether there are conditions that cast doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern

Related Party Transactions

Additionally, SSARS 25 requires that the accountant remain alert for related party transactions that were not disclosed by management. The accountant should inquire of management about transactions outside the normal course of business. You want to know if related party transactions are being used to make the financial statements look better than they really are. 

Next, you will see that the standard now permits adverse conclusions.

Adverse Conclusions in Review Engagements

In the past, adverse conclusions in a review engagement were not allowed. SSARS 25 changes this. If the financial statements are materially and pervasively misstated, you can issue an adverse conclusion.

SSARS 25 provides an illustrative accountant's review report with an adverse conclusion. (See illustration 7 on pages 85 and 86 of SSARS 25.) That example states the financial statements are not in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Here's the adverse review report conclusion:

Adverse Conclusion
Based on my (our) review, due to the significance of the matter described in the Basis for Adverse Conclusion paragraph, the financial statements are not in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

One more thing, SSARS 25 requires a statement in the review report regarding independence.

SSARS 25

Independence in Review Reports

Independence is still required to perform a review engagement. What is different, however, is the accountant must include a statement in the review report saying he or she is independent. That phrase, to be included in the Accountant's Responsibility section of the report, reads as follows:

We are required to be independent of ABC Company and to meet our other ethical responsibilities, in accordance with the relevant ethical requirements related to our review.

See examples of the independence wording in the illustrative reports in SSARS 25. Those reports start on page 75 of the standard.

So when is SSARS 25 effective?

SSARS 25 Effective Date 

The effective date for SSARS 25 is for periods ending on or after December 15, 2021. Early implementation is permitted.

Special purpose reporting framework
Mar 19

Special Purpose Reporting Frameworks

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing , Preparation, Compilation & Review

In this article, I provide information about various special purpose reporting frameworks (e.g., cash basis, modified-cash basis, and income tax basis) and how you can use them to create financial statements for your clients. 

Suppose you’ve been contacted by your client to prepare their financial statements and issue a compilation report. At first, you think, I’ll create the financials in accordance with GAAP, but then you remember there are special purpose reporting frameworks. Maybe the cash basis or income tax basis is a better option.

Special purpose reporting framework

Continue reading

AR-C 90 review engagements
Dec 25

AR-C 90: Definitive Guide to Review Engagements

By Charles Hall | Preparation, Compilation & Review

Review engagements provide limited assurance using AR-C 90, Review of Financial Statements. And these engagements can be done with much less effort than audits.

So, what are the requirements of a review engagement? When might a review be preferable to an audit? Must the CPA be independent? Can the CPA prepare the financial statements and perform the review engagement? Can a special purpose reporting framework be used? Who might desire a review report (rather than an audit or a compilation report)?

I'll answer these questions below, but, first here's a quick video introduction to the post.

Review Engagement Guidance

The guidance for reviews can be found in AR-C 90, Review of Financial Statements. AR-C 90 is part of  the AICPA's Statements on Standards for Accounting and Reporting Services (SSARS)..

Though this article is long, it's not intended to be comprehensive. It's an overview.

Applicability of AR-C 90

You should perform a review engagement when engaged to do so. If your client asks for this service and you accept, you are engaged.

A review engagement letter should be prepared and signed by the accountant or the accountant’s firm and management or those charged with governance. See engagement letter guidance below.

AR-C 90 Objectives

The objective of the accountant in a review engagement is to provide limited assurance regarding the financial statements. Other historical information such as supplementary information can also be included.

So how does an accountant perform a review engagement? Primarily with inquiries and analytics.

So, how does the limited assurance in a review engagement compare with compilations and audits?

In a compilation engagement, no assurance is provided. What procedures are employed in a compilation? Primarily, the accountant reads the financial statements for appropriateness. Why perform a compilation rather than a review? Economy and cost. Since procedures are minimal, it's easier to perform a compilation and less costly to the client.

In an audit, the accountant provides a high level of assurance. The accountant performs procedures beyond inquires and analytics such as confirmations. Audit risk assessment and planning requirements are much more rigorous than that of a review. While audits provide a higher level of assurance, they are more time-consuming. Consequently, the additional time raises the cost for the client. This is why reviews are sometimes performed rather than an audit.

Prior to performing a review engagement, make sure all stakeholders will accept this product. Some lenders might require an audit.

Review Reports

A review report is always required in a review engagement. That report states that no material modifications are necessary for the financial statements to be in accordance with the reporting framework. (See a sample review report below.)

If a departure from the reporting framework is present, an other-matter paragraph is added to the review report. If the effects of the departure are determined, they are disclosed in the report. If not known, the paragraph states that the effects have not been determined.  

Review Financial Statements

The accountant prepares financial statements as directed by management or those charged with governance. The financials should be prepared using an acceptable reporting framework including any of the following:

All of the above bases of accounting, with the exception of GAAP, are referred to as special purpose frameworks. When such a framework is used, a description is required and can be included in:

  • The financial statement titles
  • The notes to the financial statements, or
  • Otherwise on the face of the financial statements

The financial statement should disclose how the special purpose framework differs from generally accepted accounting principles. If, for example, a company uses accelerated depreciation in tax-basis statements, the financial statements should disclose how this method differs from straight-line (the usual GAAP method). 

The review report language changes when a company uses a special purpose reporting framework. See Exhibit C, illustration 3 in AR-90 for a tax-basis review report. 

Which Financial Statements?

Management specifies the financial statements to be prepared. Normally a company desires a balance sheet, an income statement, and a cash flow statement. The accountant can, however, issue just one financial statement (e.g., income statement). 

Who prepares the financial statements? The company or the CPA firm can prepare them.

Can the cash flow statement be omitted? GAAP requires a cash flow statement when a statement of financial condition and an income statement are included. Compilation standards allow for the omission of the GAAP cash flow statement if the omission is noted in the compilation report. Not so in a review engagement. The cash flow statement must be included when GAAP is used.

But is the cash flow statement required when the tax-basis of accounting is used? No, the cash flow statement can be omitted when the financial statements are tax-basis.

Disclosures in Reviewed Financial Statements

What about disclosures? Are they required in a review engagement?

In compilation engagements, disclosures can be omitted. Not so in a review engagement. Full disclosure is required, regardless of the reporting framework..

References to Review Report and Notes

Should a reference to the review report and the notes be included at the bottom of each financial statement page? While not required by the SSARS, it is acceptable to add a reference such as:

  • See Accountant’s Report and accompanying notes
  • See Accountant’s Review Report and accompanying notes, or
  • See Independent Accountant’s Review Report and accompanying notes

Review Engagement Documentation Requirements

The accountant should prepare and retain the following documentation:

  • Engagement letter
  • Financial statements 
  • Accountant’s review report 
  • Communications with management or others regarding fraud or noncompliance with laws or regulations
  • Communications with other accountants that reviewed or audited financial statements of significant components 
  • Emphasis-of-matter or other-matter paragraph communications with management or others
  • The representation letter (see Exhibit B of AR-C 90 for sample wording)

The review documentation should be sufficient to enable an experienced accountant, having no previous connection to the engagement to understand:

  • the nature, timing, and extent of the review procedures,
  • the results of the review procedures and evidence obtained, and
  • significant findings or issues, and the related conclusions and judgments

Review Engagement Letter

AR-C 80

While it is possible for the accountant to perform only a review and not prepare the financial statements, most review engagement letters will state that the following will be performed by the accountant:

  1. Preparation of the financial statements (a nonattest service)
  2. A review engagement (an attest service)

Since a nonattest service and an attest service are being provided, the accountant will add language to the engagement letter describing the client’s responsibility for the nonattest service. 

See illustrative engagement letters in Exhibit A of AR-C 90.

AICPA independence standards require the accountant to consider whether he is independent when the CPA performs an attest service (e.g., review) and a nonattest service (e.g., preparation of financial statements) for the same client. If management does not possess the skill, knowledge, and experience to oversee the preparation of the financial statements and accept responsibility, the accountant may not be independent.

So, must the accountant be independent? Yes, independence is required in review engagements.

AR-C 90 Review Procedures

The accountant should:

  1. Make inquiries,
  2. Perform analytical procedures, and
  3. Perform other procedures, as appropriate

Direct your procedures to areas with increased risks of material misstatement. An understanding of the entity and the industry in which the entity operates will better enable you to identify potential misstatements.

1. Review Inquiries

AR-90.22 provides a series of inquiries that should be made of management and others. Those questions includes matters such as fraud, subsequent events, related party transactions, and litigation. Additionally, once you create your analytical procedures, you may have questions regarding unexpected changes.

2. Review Analytical Procedures

Apply analytical procedures to the numbers. What kind? Well that depends. What numbers are most important? What numbers are most likely to be misstated? What types of analytics illuminate the client's business? Consideration of such factors will lead you to the right analytics.

Here are examples:

  • Comparing the current year financial statement numbers with the prior year
  • Comparing the current year trial balance numbers with the prior year
  • Ratios such as debt/equity or current assets/current liabilities or depreciation/total depreciable assets
  • Computing numbers with nonfinancial information such as the number of units sold times the average price 
  • Comparing quarterly revenues by location

As you can see, judgment is required. Moreover, you need to develop expectations prior to computing the numbers. AR-C 90 states "Develop an expectation of recorded amounts or ratios that is precise enough to provide the accountant with limited assurance that a misstatement will be identified."

Here are the five steps I use:

  1. Develop expectations
  2. Compute the numbers
  3. See if the numbers align with expectations
  4. Follow up with additional inquiries if expectations are not met
  5. Develop a conclusion

I find that many accountants fail to document their expectations. Or if expectations are documented, a second problem occurs: The numbers don't align with the expectation, and there's no documented follow up. If the numbers don't align with expectations, make sure you determine why.

Expectations

One question I often receive is, "How do I develop my expectations?"

It is helpful to have a discussion with management prior to computing your numbers. You want to know, for example, if sales rose during the year or if there were reductions in the workforce. The conversation informs your expectations.

Also, if you've previously worked with the client, you have knowledge regarding the client such as profit margins or debt levels. This prior knowledge informs your expectations.

Finally, you might also read the minutes (if there are any) before computing your numbers.

3. Other Review Procedures

AR-C 90 states that procedures include inquiry, analytics, and other procedures. The third element--other procedures-- is a general category that encompasses reading the financial statements and responding to risks. You might, for example, identify potential misstatements as you perform analytical procedures. If revenues are up 25% but you expect them to be stable, you'll perform additional procedures to see why.

Interestingly (at least to me), AR-C 90.A34 states that you can perform audit procedures in a review engagement. Though your review engagement letter states you are not performing an audit, your review file can include audit procedures. Why would the AICPA provide this latitude? To give you the ability to reach beyond your typical review procedures (inquiry and analytics). You need a basis for the limited assurance you are providing. And in some situations, you may need audit procedures to get you there.

Review Representation Letter

AR-C 90
 
 
 
 

A signed representation letter is required in all review engagements.

The date of the representation letter will agree with the date of the review report. In no event should the date of the representation letter precede the date of the review report. (The accountant is not required to have physical possession of the letter on the date of the review report. But the accountant should have the signed letter prior to releasing the financial statements.)

So, provide the draft of the financial statements to the client in a timely manner so they can review them and assume responsibility. Thereafter, the client can sign the representation letter.

Additionally, the representation letter should cover all financial statements and all periods in the report.

Exhibit B of AR-90 provides a sample representation letter.

Review Report Sample

The following is a review report sample (sometimes referred to as an accounting review report):

Independent Accountant's Review Report

[Appropriate Addressee]

I (We) have reviewed the accompanying financial statements of XYZ Company, which comprise the balance sheets as of December 31, 20X2 and 20X1, and the related statements of income, changes in stockholders' equity, and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes to the financial statements. A review includes primarily applying analytical procedures to management's (owners') financial data and making inquiries of company management (owners). A review is substantially less in scope than an audit, the objective of which is the expression of an opinion regarding the financial statements as a whole. Accordingly, I (we) do not express such an opinion.

Management's Responsibility for the Financial Statements

Management (Owners) is (are) responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America; this includes the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement whether due to fraud or error.

Accountant's Responsibility

My (Our) responsibility is to conduct the review engagements in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services promulgated by the Accounting and Review Services Committee of the AICPA. Those standards require me (us) to perform procedures to obtain limited assurance as a basis for reporting whether I am (we are) aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements for them to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. I (We) believe that the results of my (our) procedures provide a reasonable basis for my (our) conclusion.

Accountant's Conclusion

Based on my (our) reviews, I am (we are) not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the accompanying financial statements in order for them to be in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

[Signature of accounting firm or accountant, as appropriate]

[Accountant's city and state]

[Date of the accountant's review report]

Exhibit C of AR-C 90 provides six review report illustrations.

Reporting When There are Other Accountants

What are your responsibilities if you are performing the review of a consolidated entity that includes a subsidiary audited or reviewed by another accountant? 

First, obtain and read the subsidiary report.

Second, decide whether to make reference to the other accountants in your review report. If reference is made, AR-C 90.79 states "the accountant should clearly indicate in the accountant's review report that the accountant used the work of other accountants and should include the magnitude of the portion of the financial statements audited or reviewed by the other accountants." See Illustration 6 in Appendix C of AR-C 90 for sample report language. If you refer to the other accountant, you will state that you did not review the subsidiary financial statements.

Third, regardless of whether you decide to make reference to the other accountants, communicate with the other accountants. This communication includes a statement that the other accountants understand the relevant reporting framework and review or auditing standards, as applicable. Advise them that you are including the subsidiary's financials in the consolidation. Additionally, communicate the ethical requirements of the engagement, mainly independence. And finally, advise that you are reviewing matters affecting the intercompany eliminations.

Going Concern in Review Engagements

If the reporting framework requires that management evaluate going concern, then you should perform review procedures in regard to that and other related information. 

If the reporting framework does not require management to evaluate going concern but you become aware of conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about the entity's ability to continue as a going concern, you should perform review procedures such as inquiries about whether the going concern basis of accounting is appropriate. 

See my article titled Going Concern in Compilation and Review Engagements.

Other Historical Information in Review Engagements

In addition to historical financial statements, AR-C 90 may be applied to the following:

  • Specified elements, accounts, or items of a financial statement, including schedules of:
    • Rents
    • Royalties
    • Profit participation, or
    • Income tax provisions
  • Supplementary information
  • Required supplementary information
  • Tax return information

Review Engagements Conclusion

There you have it. Now you know how to perform a review engagement.

The main purpose of a review is to provide limited assurance in regard to the information. Inquiries and analytics are required. A signed representation letter is also required.

If you desire to issue financial statements without a compilation or review report, consider the use of AR-C 70, Preparation of Financial Statements.

If you desire to issue financial statements without a review report, consider using AR-C 80, Compilation Engagements.

The AICPA provides the full text of AR-C 90 online. You can download the PDF if you like. Once you download the document, you can use control-f to find particular words. I find this useful.

For additional SSARS-related articles see:

financial statement references
Nov 03

Financial Statement References

By Charles Hall | Accounting , Preparation, Compilation & Review

What financial statement references are required at the bottom of financial statement pages? Is there a difference in the references in audited statements and those in compilations or reviews? What wording should be placed at the bottom of supplementary pages? Below I answer these questions.

financial statement references

Audited Financial Statements and Supplementary Information

First, let’s look at financial statement references in audit reports.

While generally accepted accounting principles do not require financial page references to the notes, it is a common practice to do so. Here are examples:

  • See notes to the financial statements.
  • The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
  • See accompanying notes.

Accountants can also–though not required–reference specific disclosures on a financial statement page. For example, See Note 6 (next to the Inventory line on a balance sheet). It is my preference to use general references such as See accompanying notes.

Audit standards do not require financial statement page references to the audit opinion.

Supplementary pages should not include a reference to the notes or the opinion.

Preparation, Compilation, and Review Engagements

Now, let’s discuss references in preparation, compilation, and review engagements. 

Compilation and Review Engagements

The Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services (SSARS) do not require a reference (on financial statement pages) to the compilation or review report; however, it is permissible to do so. What do I do? I do not refer to the accountant’s report. I include See accompanying notes at the bottom of each financial statement page (when notes are included). This reference to notes, however, is not required, even when notes are included. (Notes can be omitted in compilation engagements.)

You are not required to include a reference to the accountant’s report on the supplementary information pages. Examples include:

  • See Accountant’s Compilation Report.
  • See Independent Accountant’s Review Report.

What do I do? I include a reference to the accountant’s report on each supplementary page. But, again, it’s fine to not include a reference to the report.

Preparation of Financial Statement Engagements

Additionally, SSARS provides a nonattest option called the preparation of financial statements (AR-C 70). This option is used by the CPA to issue financial statements that are not subject to the compilation standards. No compilation report is issued. AR-C 70 requires that the accountant either state on each page that “no assurance is provided” or provide a disclaimer that precedes the financial statements. AR-C 70 does not require that the financial statement pages refer to the disclaimer (if provided), but it is permissible to do so. Such a reference might read See Accountant’s Disclaimer.

If your AR-C 70 work product has supplementary information, consider including this same reference (See Accountant’s Disclaimer) on the supplementary pages.

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