Today I give you seven steps to review financial statements on computer screens. I explain how to review financial statements in Word and in PDFs.
In another post titled How CPAs Review Financial Statements, I provide information about creating and reviewing financial statements, but it doesn’t provide information about doing so on computer screens. This article does.
Financial Statement Review in Word
- First, open and visually scan the entire financial statement (spend two to three seconds per page) just to get a feel for the whole product. How do the parts fit together? Are the financial statements subject to the Yellow Book? Do they contain supplementary information? Are the statements comparative?
- Second, use a large computer screen (22 inches or more) to compare your financial statement pages. If you are reviewing in Word, reduce the financial statement page size by holding the control key down and scrolling back with your mouse. As you do so, you will see multiple statements on the screen, for instance: balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement. Now that you can see multiple statements, you can tick and tie your numbers. I use step 2. to compare the financial statement numbers. For example, I compare the net income number on the income statement to the same number on the cash flow statement. Then I use step 3. to compare the financial statements to the notes and the supplementary information.
- Next, use two to three computer screens to compare your financial statements with the notes and supplementary information. Open the financial statement on each screen–for instance, the balance sheet on screen 1, the notes on screen 2, and the supplementary information on screen 3. In Word, click View, New Window and another instance of the document will open. Then you can move the new instance to a second screen. Alternatively, you can use the side-by-side feature in Word to place two open documents on one screen.
- After completing your review of the notes, return to and take a second look at the balance sheet to see if the disclosures are complete. (Since you just reviewed the notes, it’s easier to compare them to the balance sheet. If, for example, you look at the balance sheet and see inventory but no disclosure for the same, you’ll more easily see the error.)
- Use the find feature (in Word, click the Home tab, click Find, then key in the number–or word–you are looking for) to locate words or numbers. If you want to compare the long-term debt number on the balance sheet to the notes and to supplemental information, type that number into your search dialog box and you’re immediately taken to the same number in the notes. Click next, and you will see the next instance (in the supplementary information). You can do the same with words. (Note: If you embed Excel tables in the Word document, the find feature will not locate numbers in the embedded tables. Consider PDF review option below.)
- When needed, take breaks. Never spend more than 1.5 hours reviewing statements without taking a short break. You get more done by relaxing periodically.
- Finally, if you are reviewing financial statements in Word, consider turning on Track Changes and key in suggested revisions. Word reflects your modifications in a distinct color. That way, others can see your suggested changes. They can also see who made the suggested corrections. Thereafter, they can accept or reject the proposed changes.
Financial Statement Review with PDF Documents
You may find it easier to review financial statements after converting them to a PDF (rather than in Word). This makes all numbers and words fully searchable (no embedded Excel spreadsheet limitation issue).
You can use the split screen feature (click Windows, Split in Adobe Acrobat) to see the same financial statements on one screen. I usually do this on my center screen. This allows me to scroll and compare numbers in the financial statements. For instance, I compare total assets with total liabilities and equity. Or I compare equity on the balance sheet with my statement of changes in equity ending balances.
I also open a second instance of the PDF on my right-hand screen, mainly to compare my notes with the financial statements (on my center screen). Then I use control-f to locate numbers or words. For instance, if I see $456,856 for total plant, property, and equipment (on my center screen), I click on the right-hand screen, then control-f, then key in the number to find it in the notes.
I make review comments in the PDF using the comments feature in Adobe Acrobat. Then persons can respond with the reply feature in the comments field. That way, they can provide a response, whether they agree or not—and what they did if a correction was made.
Those are my ideas. What are yours?