All Posts by Charles Hall

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About the Author

Charles Hall is a practicing CPA and Certified Fraud Examiner. For the last thirty years, he has primarily audited governments, nonprofits, and small businesses. He is the author of The Little Book of Local Government Fraud Prevention and Preparation of Financial Statements & Compilation Engagements. He frequently speaks at continuing education events. Charles is the quality control partner for McNair, McLemore, Middlebrooks & Co. where he provides daily audit and accounting assistance to over 65 CPAs. In addition, he consults with other CPA firms, assisting them with auditing and accounting issues.

Pro Forma Information
Oct 17

Are You Up to Speed on the New Pro Forma Information Standard?

By Charles Hall | Preparation, Compilation & Review

The Accounting and Review Services Committee (ARSC) issued SSARS 22 Compilation of Pro Forma Financial Information. You may remember that ARSC did not address pro forma information in SSARS 21. SSARS 22 clarifies AR 120 Compilation of Pro Forma Information and codifies it as AR-C 120.

Pro Forma Information

So what is pro forma information? It is a presentation that shows what the significant effects on historical financial information might have been had a consummated or proposed transaction (or event) occurred at an earlier date.

Pro Forma Information

Picture from AdobeStock.com

To understand SSARS 22, let’s answer a few questions.

Examples of Pro Forma Information

Examples of pro forma information include presenting financial statements for the following:

  • Business combinations
  • The selling of a significant part of a business
  • A change in the capitalization of an entity

Again we are providing financial information as though the transaction or event has–already–occurred.

Required Disclosures

In pro forma financial information, what should be disclosed?

  • A description of the transaction (or event) that is reflected in the presentation
  • The date on which the transaction (or event) is assumed to occur
  • The financial reporting framework
  • The source of the financial information
  • The significant assumptions used
  • Any significant uncertainties about those assumptions
  • A statement that the pro forma information should be read in conjunction with the related historical information and that the pro forma information is not necessarily indicative of the results that would have been attained had the transaction (or event) actually taken place

Independence

Must the accountant consider his or her independence? Yes, since this is a compilation engagement. (Note: The preparation of the pro forma information is considered a nonattest service.)

Acceptance and Continuance

Should the accountant perform acceptance and continuance procedures? Yes.

Engagement Letter

Is an engagement letter required? Yes, and it must be signed by the accountant’s firm and management or those charged with governance.

Compilation Procedures

What compilation procedures should be performed?

  • Read the pro forma financial information to determine if it is appropriate in form and free from obvious material misstatement
  • Obtain an understanding of the underlying transaction or event (that the pro forma information is based upon)
  • Determine that management includes:
    • Complete financial statements for the most recent year (or from the preceding year if financial statements for the most recent year are not yet available) or make such financial statements readily available (e.g., post on a public website)
    • If pro forma financial information is presented for an interim period, either historical interim financial information for that period (which may be in condensed form) or make such interim information readily available
    • For business combinations, the relevant financial information for the significant parts of the combined entity
  • Determine that the information in the preceding bullet has been subjected to a compilation, review or an audit
  • Determine that the compilation, review or audit report on the historical information is included in any document containing the  pro forma financial information (or made readily available such as on a public website)
  • Determine whether the significant assumptions and uncertainties are disclosed
  • Determine whether the source of the historical financial information on which the pro forma information is based is appropriately identified

Pro Forma in Conjunction with Other Services

Can the pro forma engagement be performed in conjunction with a compilation, review or an audit? Yes. Alternatively, the pro forma engagement can be performed separately.

Required Documentation

What documentation is to be retained in the file?

  • Engagement letter
  • The results of procedures performed
  • Copy of the pro forma financial information
  • Copy of the accountant’s compilation report

Compilation Report Required

Is a compilation report to be issued? Yes. (See sample report below.)

Is the accountant offering any assurance regarding the pro forma information? No.

Can the pro forma compilation report be added to the accountant’s report on historical financial statements? Yes. Alternatively, the pro forma compilation report can be presented separately.

Effective Date of SSARS 22

What’s the effective date of SSARS 22? The standard is effective for compilation reports on pro forma financial information dated on or after May 1, 2017.

Potential New Service for Your Clients

If you are not already providing pro forma information to clients, consider suggesting this service when appropriate. Clients may find pro forma information helpful in evaluating the potential sale of stock, the borrowing of funds for a project, or the sale of a part of the business.

Sample SSARS 22 Compilation Report

Exhibit B of SSARS 22 provides the following sample compilation report on pro forma financial information:

Management is responsible for the accompanying pro forma condensed balance sheet of XYZ Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the related pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended (pro forma financial information), based on the criteria in Note 1. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the financial statements of XYZ Company, on which I (we) performed a compilation engagement, and of ABC Company, on which other accountants performed a compilation engagement. The pro forma adjustments are based on management’s assumptions described in Note 1. (We) have performed a compilation engagement in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services promulgated by the Accounting and Review Services Committee of the AICPA. I (we) did not examine or review the pro forma financial information nor was (were) I (we) required to perform any procedures to verify the accuracy or completeness of the information provided by management. Accordingly, I (we) do not express an opinion, a conclusion, nor provide any form of assurance on the pro forma financial information.

The objective of this pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on the historical financial information might have been had the underlying transaction (or event) occurred at an earlier date. However, the pro forma condensed financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations or related effects on financial position that would have been attained had the above mentioned transaction (or event) actually occurred at such earlier date.

[Additional paragraph(s) may be added to emphasize certain matters relating to the compilation engagement or the subject matter.]

[Signature of accounting firm or accountant, as appropriate] [Accountant’s city and state]
[Date of the accountant’s report]

auditor's cell phone
Sep 17

An Auditor’s Cell Phone

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing , Technology

A cell phone is an auditor’s Swiss knife. And with all the options, I am continually looking for another way to use mine. So I’m sharing my ideas with the hope that you will likewise share yours. While I use an iPhone, I realize there are plenty of other nifty cell phones; my comments below are directed not at a particular phone but how I use mine as an auditor.

Below you will see a screenshot of my cell phone home screen and information concerning how I use various apps.

Auditor's Cell Phone

An Auditor’s Cell Phone

 

Camera

I use this iPhone app to capture pictures of documents as I perform internal control walkthroughs. I embed these pictures in my walkthrough documentation. A picture says a thousand words. If the person explaining the accounting system creates pictures on a whiteboard, I take photos of the drawings.

Sometimes I need a copy of a page from a hardback book (e.g., research); rather than using the copy machine, I take a picture of the page and email it.

Keynote

Keynote is Apple’s version of Powerpoint. I build the Keynote slide deck for presentations and use my phone to present. If you use iCloud, the slide deck you create on your iPad will automatically appear on your iPhone (if your settings are right).

You can also present a Keynote slide deck using your iPad as the presentation device and your iPhone as a remote. Your iPhone moves the slides of the iPad slide deck as you stand at a distance. Both devices (iPad and iPhone) must be on the same wifi for the remote feature to work.

Kindle

I buy most of my books using the one-click option in Amazon. Most books are 50% less in price (or more) than physical books. You can highlight books you read and then create a summary of those highlights (which I then place in my searchable Evernote account–see below); you can copy and paste these highlights to Word or other software.

If I am waiting on a plane, taxi, a friend, a doctor, etc., I have all my books handy for reading. You can even purchase my fraud prevention or SSARS 21 books (shameless advertising, yes I’m guilty).

Evernote

I love Evernote! It is my cloud storage, and at $70 per year for the premium version, it provides me with tremendous power. All the research I have performed and stored is available everywhere I go. All the articles I have saved are at my fingertips. (And it is so easy to store information in this application.) At present, I have thousands of screenshots, websites, articles, presentations, conversations, books, pictures, and answered research issues. It’s my knowledge library.

You can use this app to record conversations that are automatically loaded into Evernote.

Dropbox

I also use Dropbox to store some documents. Most apps connect well with Dropbox, and it handles large video or audio files well.

1Password

I save all my passwords in 1Password. No more wondering how I’m going to get into my computer with a password I’ve forgotten–again (I know this never happens to you).

Messages

I text my audit team members to see how things are going. Messaging is much more efficient than calling if the communication is short. (You can also take a picture of anything with Camera and message the picture. If your audit team member needs to see something on your computer screen, take a picture of it and message the shot to them with comments.)

Don’t want to type the message? Just say it out loud, and the app will record your words for sending.

Maps

I use Google maps to get to new audit locations.

Weather

I use the Weather Channel’s app to check the weather before I leave for trips so I can dress appropriately.

Pandora

Mozart or U2 makes my audit day go by much better. If you prefer music without ads, you can pay Pandora for the service. 

Sharefile

Sharefile is my go-to app for sending sensitive client data. With hackers everywhere, I don’t risk sending sensitive client data in emails.

Fantastical

My Fantastical calendar app syncs with my Outlook calendar, so regardless of where I am, I can check my appointments and schedule the same. I can also add reminders in Fantastical, so I don’t forget the milk.

ToDoist

Do I keep a to-do list? Yes, in my ToDoist app. This app integrates with Outlook.

Audible

When I am driving, I listen to books using Audible. If you’re on the road a lot, this is a great way to redeem your time.

WSJ

I read the Wall Street Journal to keep abreast of current events. This WSJ app provides me access to one of the best newspapers in America (and there aren’t many these days).

Siri

While not an app, I push the button on my iPhone and Siri asks me what I want to do. This is how I make phone calls by simply saying, “call my wife,” for example. I also send texts (or emails) the same way by saying “send a text to C.S. Lewis”; then I tell Siri what I want to say–works amazingly well; she even understands my southern accent (and that, my friends, is truly amazing).

What About You?

How do you use your cell phone at work? I would love to hear from you.

Special Purpose Reporting Frameworks
Sep 12

Which Special Purpose Reporting Framework Should I Use?

By Charles Hall | Accounting and Auditing , Preparation, Compilation & Review

You’ve been contacted by your client to prepare their financial statements and issue a compilation report. At first, you think, “I’ll create the financials in accordance with GAAP,” but then you remember there are special purpose reporting framework options. Maybe the cash basis or tax basis is better for your client.

Special Purpose Reporting Frameworks

Picture is from AdobeStock.com

Special Purpose Reporting Frameworks

What is a special purpose reporting framework?  It is a reporting framework other than generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) that is one of the following:

  • Cash basis
  • Tax basis
  • Regulatory basis
  • Contractual basis
  • Other basis (as long as the basis uses reasonable, logical criteria that are applied to all material items)

Let’s begin our exploration of special purpose reporting frameworks by examining the simplest basis: the cash basis.

Cash Basis

While a pure cash basis financial statement is the easiest to create, it may be too simple. After all, you only create one financial statement. For example:

ABC Company

Statement of Cash Receipts and Disbursements

For the Year Ended December 31, 2016

Receipts

Rent                                                                                                                   $XX

Sales                                                                                                                     XX

Other                                                                                                                    XX

Total Receipts                                                                                                     XX

Disbursements

Supplies                                                                                                              XX

Wages                                                                                                                  XX

Utilities                                                                                                               XX

Total Disbursements                                                                                       XX

Increase in Cash                                                                                       XX

Beginning Cash                                                                                             XX

Ending Cash                                                                                                 $XX

Notice there are no accruals and no balance sheet. When the company spends and receives cash, the transaction is recorded; otherwise, there is no entry. So who might benefit from the pure cash basis? The cash basis might be useful for a small nonprofit, a trust, or a student activity fund.

If the cash basis is not an appropriate solution, then consider another special purpose reporting framework: the modified cash basis.

Modified Cash Basis

Using the modified cash basis, you can present a balance sheet, an income statement, and a cash flow statement. It is, however, permissible to create just one statement–such as the income statement–and issue a compilation report. If you present a balance sheet and an income statement, the cash flow statement is optional.

What Modifications to Cash are Permissible?

SSARS 21 defines cash basis as a basis of accounting that the entity uses to record cash receipts and disbursements and modifications of the cash basis having substantial support (for example, recording depreciation on fixed assets). So we see that modifications to the cash basis are permissible under SSARS 21.

A modification to the cash basis is considered to have substantial support if it is equivalent to GAAP and is not illogical. What is an example of an illogical modification? The balance sheet includes accrued receivables but no payables are recorded. If such a presentation were allowed, the company’s financial health would appear stronger than it is.

Difference in Cash Basis and Modified Cash Basis

So how does the modified cash basis differ from the cash basis? Using the modified cash basis, you can record an item on a balance sheet when the transaction involves cash. So if a company loans cash to an outside party, a loan receivable could be recorded on the balance sheet. (If the cash basis is used, the loan is reflected as a disbursement.) The accounting entry for the loan is as follows:

                                                  Dr.      Cr.

Loans Receivable                  XX

Cash                                                    XX

Since cash is a part of the entry, it is okay to record the loan on the balance sheet using the modified cash basis.

But if a company sells inventory on credit it would not record the transaction–no cash is involved in the transaction. The same is true of payables–they are not booked since cash is not a part of the entry. To accrue a payable (amount owed to vendors), the entry is as follows:

                                                 Dr.     Cr.

Supplies Expense                 XX

Accounts Payable                          XX

We do not record the payables on the balance sheet. Why? Because cash is not a part of the entry.

So when a company pays cash for inventory or plant, property, and equipment, then those assets can be reflected on the balance sheet. (Also, plant, property, and equipment can be depreciated.) The same is true when the company obtains a loan–cash is received, so the debt can be recorded on the balance sheet.

Transactions that Should Not be Recorded

What are some examples of transactions that should not be recorded using the modified cash basis? Here are a few:

  • Purchase of assets with a capital lease
  • The receipt of donated equipment
  • The receipt of donated investments
  • Receivables when cash is not loaned (e.g. accounts receivable)
  • Payables when cash is not received (e.g., accounts payable)
  • Accrued interest

Ill-Defined Recognition Criteria

The modifications of the cash basis are not defined in auditing or SSARS guidance. In other words, there is judgment in selecting the modifications. Does this make you uneasy? Is the modified cash basis too ill-defined for you? If yes, you may find the tax basis of accounting a better option.

Tax Basis

In using the tax-basis, the transaction recognition criteria is simpler than that of the modified cash basis of accounting. Just ask, “Is this transaction recognized on the tax return?”

What financial statements can be presented using the tax basis? You can present just one financial statement (e.g., balance sheet), or you can present the balance sheet (referred to as the statement of assets, liabilities, and equity-tax basis) and the income statement–with or without the cash flow statement.

What entities can use the tax basis of accounting? Any entity that files a return with the IRS–either an income tax return or an information return. So a nonprofit that pays no taxes can use the tax basis, but a government that files no return could not. Those entities that can use the income tax basis include:

  • C corporation
  • S corporation
  • LLC
  • Partnerships
  • Nonprofit corporations
  • Sole proprietors

As we have seen in an earlier post, if you prepare a tax return for a client, then tax basis is the most efficient way to deliver financials.

Advantages of Special Purpose Frameworks

Special purpose reporting frameworks provide certain advantages including:

  • If the tax basis is used and you prepare the tax return, there is no conversion to GAAP
  • No cash flow statement is required
  • Special purpose frameworks are often easier to prepare (e.g., no accruals for the cash basis)

Reference Books

Are there reference guides for special purpose reporting frameworks? Yes. The two I use are:

Cash, Tax and Other Bases of Accounting — Thomson Reuters

Accounting and Financial Reporting Guidelines for Cash- and Tax-Basis Financial Statements–AICPA

While both publications provide sample financial statements, the Thomson Reuters guide has several sample statements and checklists.

Change in Lease Accounting
Aug 23

How to Account for Finance and Operating Leases

By Charles Hall | Accounting

Most CPAs grapple with leases from the lessee’s point of view, so in this post, we’ll take a look at leases from the lessee’s perspective. Under the new lease standard, what are the types of leases? Does the accounting vary based on the type of lease? Are lease expenses different?

Change in Lease Accounting

Picture from AdobeStock.com

First, let’s start by defining the types of leases and how to classify them.

The Types of Leases

Upon the commencement date of the lease, the company should classify the lease as either a finance or an operating lease. (Under present lease standards a finance lease is referred to as a capital lease.)

Finance Lease

So what is a finance lease? A lease is considered a finance lease if it meets any of the following criteria:

  1. The lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term
  2. The lease grants the lessee an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise
  3. The lease term is for the major part of the remaining economic life of the underlying asset (today we use the 75% rule)
  4. The present value of the sum of the lease payments and residual value guarantee equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the underlying asset (today we use the 90% rule)
  5. The underlying asset is of such a specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to the lessor at the end of the lease term

While the bright-line criteria (e.g., the lease term of 75% or more of economic life) have been removed, the basis for conclusions in the new lease standard acknowledges some of the old rules of thumb.  It says that one reasonable approach to determining whether the lease is for a major portion of the asset’s life is the 75% threshold. The conclusion goes on to say that “90 percent or greater is ‘substantially all’ the fair value of the underlying asset.” So, in effect, FASB removed the bright-lines as a rule but not in principle–the conclusion says FASB “does not mandate those bright lines.”

Operating Lease

And what is an operating lease? It’s any lease that is not a financing lease.

Accounting Similarities and Differences

Both operating and finance leases result in a right-of-use asset and a lease liability. The subsequent accounting for the two types of leases is quite different.

Finance Lease Accounting

The accounting for a finance lease is similar to capital lease accounting under present standards.

When a company enters into a finance lease, it will record the right-of-use asset and the lease liability. The amortization of the right-of-use asset will be straight-line and the amortization of the liability will be accounted for using the effective interest method. Consequently, lease expenses are front-loaded (i.e., expenses will decline throughout the lease term). The amortization expense and the interest expense will be presented separately on the income statement.

As we are about to see, operating lease accounting is significantly different, particularly with regard to accounting for the lease expense and the amortization of the right-of-use asset.

Operating Lease Accounting

The primary change in lease accounting lies in the operating lease area. Under ASC 842 a company will book a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all operating leases greater than twelve months in length. (Under current lease standards, no asset or liability is recorded.) Will the operating lease expense be any different than it has been? No. But the recording and amortization of the right-of-use asset and the lease liability is new.

The Initial Operating Lease Entries

Let’s say a company has a five-year operating lease for $1,000 per month and will pay $60,000 over the life of the lease. How do we account for this lease? First, the company records the right-of-use asset and the lease liability by discounting the present value of the payments using the effective interest method.  In this example, the present value might be $54,000. As the right-of-use asset and lease liability are amortized the company will (each month) debit rent expense for $1,000—the amount the company is paying. So the expense amount is still the same as it was under ASC 840.

Amortizing the Right-of-Use Asset and the Lease Liability

Well, how does the company amortize the right-of-use asset and the lease liability? The lease liability is amortized using the effective interest method, and the interest expense is a component of the rent expense. What’s the remainder of the $1,000? The amortization of the right-of-use asset. The $1,000 rent expense is made up of two components: (1) the interest expense for the month and (2) the right-of-use amortization amount which is a plug to make the entry balance. Even though the rent expense is made up of these two components, it appears on the income statement as one line: rent expense (unlike the finance lease which reflects interest expense and amortization expense separately).

Potential Impairments

Due to the mechanics of the straight-line lease expense calculation, the right-of-use asset amortization expense is back-loaded (i.e. the amortization expense component is less in the early part of the lease). One potential consequence of this slower amortization is the right-of-use asset may be subject to impairment, especially toward the end of the lease. The impairment rules do apply to the right-of-use asset.

Your Thoughts

So, what do you think of the new lease accounting? Is it better? Worse?

You can see my first two lease posts here:

Post 1: How to Understand the New Lease Accounting Standard

Post 2: Get Ready for Changes in Leases and the Leasing Industry

Lease Standard
Aug 17

Get Ready for Changes in Leases and the Leasing Industry

By Charles Hall | Accounting

The Leasing Industry will Change

In my last lease post, we saw that bright-line criteria (e.g., lease terms of 75% or more of economic life and minimum lease payments of 90% or more of fair market value) are eliminated with ASU 2016-02. Consequently, almost all leases—including operating leases—will create lease liabilities. This accounting change will alter the leasing industry.

Lease Standard

Picture from AdobeStock.com

Lessees are presently paying high lease interest rates to obtain operating lease treatment (no lease debt is recorded). Now—with the new lease standard—those same operating leases will generate lease liabilities. So why would the lessee pay the higher interest rate? There is nothing to be gained. Lessees will begin to borrow money from banks (at a lower rate). And they will buy the formerly leased asset, or they will demand lower interest rates from the lessor. Lessees, I think, will obtain better interest rates.

The Scope of the Lease Standard

To what does the lease standard apply? It applies to leases of property, plant, and equipment (identified asset) based on a contract that conveys control to the lessee for a period of time in exchange for consideration. The period may be described in relation to the amount of usage (e.g., units produced). Also, the identified asset must be physically distinct (e.g., a floor of a building).

Control over the use of the leased asset means the customer has both:

  1. The right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of the identified asset
  2. The right to direct the use of the asset

To what does the standard not apply?

The lease standard does not apply to the following:

  1. Leases of intangible assets, including licenses of internal-use software
  2. Leases to explore for or use minerals, oil, natural gas, and similar resources
  3. Leases of biological assets
  4. Leases of inventory
  5. Leases of assets under construction

Operating or Finance Lease

Upon the commencement date of the lease, the company should classify the lease as either a finance or an operating lease. Under present lease standards, a finance lease is referred to as a capital lease.

So what is a finance lease? A lease is considered a finance lease if it meets any of the following criteria:

  1. The lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term
  2. The lease grants the lessee an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise
  3. The lease term is for the major part of the remaining economic life of the underlying asset (today we use the 75% rule)
  4. The present value of the sum of the lease payments and residual value guarantee equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the underlying asset (today we use the 90% rule)
  5. The underlying asset is of such a specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to the lessor at the end of the lease term

And what is an operating lease? It’s any lease that is not a financing lease.

Both operating and finance leases result in a right-of-use asset and a lease liability. The subsequent accounting for the two types of leases will be different (a topic we’ll cover in my next lease post).

Related Party Leases

Leases between related parties will be classified just as any other lease will be. Companies will look to the legally enforceable terms and conditions of the lease to determine whether a lease contract exists. If a lease contract exists, the agreement will be treated as a lease with the lessor reflecting a sale and the lessee capitalizing the related lease liability and right-of-use asset.

Are there any leases that will not result in a right-of-use asset and a lease liability? Yes, those with terms of twelve months or less.

Lease Terms of Less Than 12 Months

Companies do have the option to not capitalize a lease of 12 months or less. To do so, the company must make an accounting policy election (by class of the underlying leased asset). Companies that use the election will recognize lease expenses on a straight-line basis, and no right of use asset or lease liability will be recorded. If, however, the terms of the short-term lease change, the agreement could become one in which the lease is capitalized–for example, if the lease term changes to greater than twelve months. (Expect to see plenty of leases terms of twelve months or less.)

Month-to-month leases will usually not be capitalized if the accounting policy election is taken. Consider, however, any options to renew or if the leases contain “mutual” renewal options. Once the noncancelable period is over and the contract is no longer enforceable, the lease becomes an “at-will” arrangement.

ASC 842-10-30-1 defines the lease term as the noncancelable period of the lease together with all of the following:

  • Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  • Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  • Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor

Getting Ready for the New Lease Standard

Companies can ready themselves for implementation of the new lease standard by doing the following:

  1. Take an educational class that explains the particulars of the lease standard
  2. Create an inventory of all leases (I would use an Excel spreadsheet and create a worksheet summarizing financing leases and another worksheet for operating leases)
  3. Obtain copies of all lease agreements to support the inventory of leases (note–some verbal lease contracts are enforceable)
  4. Determine the terms of the leases (see ASC 842-10-30-1 above)
  5. Segregate the lease and non-lease (e.g., maintenance, cleaning) components in the lease contracts (companies will usually capitalize just the lease portion, though ASC 842-10-15-37 allows a lessee to make an election to not separate the non-lease component)
  6. Document judgments made such as whether the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise a renewal extension 
  7. Compute all lease liabilities and right-of-use asset amounts 
  8. Determine whether the implementation of the standard might adversely affect the company’s compliance with debt covenants (you may want to discuss the impact with your lenders)

While this list is not comprehensive, performing these actions will assist you in preparing for implementation of the lease standard.

Effective Dates for New Lease Standard

ASC 842 (ASU 2016-02), Leases, replaces ASC 840, Leases.

The effective dates for 842 are as follows:

For public entities, the standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those years.

For all other entities, the standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020.

Early implementation is permissible for all entities.

More Lease Information Coming

We’ll continue this series of lease posts next week. So stay tuned. 

See How to Account for Finance and Operating Leases.

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